Insights into SARS-CoV-2 genome, structure, evolution, pathogenesis and therapies: Structural genomics approach.
Authors: Naqvi AAT(1), Fatima K(2), Mohammad T(1), Fatima U(3), Singh IK(4), Singh A(5), Atif SM(6), Hariprasad G(7), Hasan GM(8), Hassan MI(9).
Reference: BiochimBiophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2020 Oct 1;1866(10):165878.
The sudden emergence of severe respiratory disease, caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has recently become a public health emergency. Genome sequence analysis of SARS-CoV-2 revealed its close resemblance to the earlier reported SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). However, initial testing of the drugs used against SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV has been ineffective in controlling SARS-CoV-2. The present study highlights the genomic, proteomic, pathogenesis, and therapeutic strategies in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We have carried out sequence analysis of potential drug target proteins in SARS-CoV-2 and, compared them with SARS-CoV and MERS viruses. Analysis of mutations in the coding and non-coding regions, genetic diversity, and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 has also been done. A detailed structural analysis of drug target proteins has been performed to gain insights into the mechanism of pathogenesis, structure-function relationships, and the development of structure-guided therapeutic approaches. The cytokine profiling and inflammatory signalling are different in the case of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also highlighted possible therapies and their mechanism of action followed by clinical manifestation. Our analysis suggests a minimal variation in the genome sequence of SARS-CoV-2, may be responsible for a drastic change in the structures of target proteins, which makes available drugs ineffective.